Basic Concepts: Continuum, macroscopic and microscopic approach, closed and open or control volume; thermodynamic properties and equilibrium; state of a system, state diagram, path and process; different modes of work;

Zeroth law of thermodynamics; the concept of temperature; heat. First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy, enthalpy, specific heats, first law applied to systems and control volumes, steady and unsteady flow analysis.

Second Law of Thermodynamics: Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements, reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot theorems, thermodynamic temperature scale, Clausius inequality and concept of entropy, the principle of increase of entropy; availability and irreversibility.

Properties of Pure Substances: Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid, liquid and vapour phases, P-V-T behaviour of simple compressible substances, phase rule, thermodynamic property tables and charts, ideal and real gases, equations of state, compressibility chart. Thermodynamic Relations: T-ds relations, Maxwell equations, Joule-Thomson coefficient, coefficient of volume expansion, adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities, Clapeyron equation.

Thermodynamic cycles: Carnot vapour power cycle, Ideal Rankine cycle, Rankine Reheat cycle, Air standard Otto cycle, Air standard Diesel cycle, Air-standard Brayton cycle, Vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. Ideal Gas Mixtures: Dalton’s and Amagat’s laws, calculations of properties, air-water vapour mixtures and simple thermodynamic processes involving them